Academic publications

Anjum, R.L., Chandler, R.E., Rocca, E. (2022). Dispositions and Causality Assessment in Pharmacovigilance: Proposing the Dx3 Approach for Assessing Causality with Small Data Sets. Pharmacological Medicine. Read online

Pérez-González S, Rocca E. (2022). Evidence of Biological Mechanisms and Health Predictions: An Insight into Clinical Reasoning. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine;65(1):89-105. Read free version here.

Rocca, E, Grundmark, B. (2021). Monitoring the Safety of Medicines and Vaccines in Times of Pandemic: Practical, Conceptual, and Ethical Challenges in Pharmacovigilance. Argumenta. Read online.

Rocca,E. Remdesivir and Pancreatic Toxicity (2021). WHO Pharmaceutical Letters, issue 3, p.16.

Rocca, E., Gauffin, O., Savage, R., Vidlin, S. Grundmark, B. (2021). Remdesivir in the COVID-19 pandemic: an analysis of spontaneous reports in Vigibase during 2020. Drug Safety. Read Online.

Reuter, K. and Rocca, E. (2021). Correspondence on ‘Mining social media data to investigate patient perceptions regarding DMARD pharmacotherapy for rheumatoid arthritis’. Annals of the Reumatic Diseases,

Andersen, F. and Rocca, E. (2020). Underdetermination and evidence-based policy. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical SciencesRead online.

Anjum, R.L., Copeland, S., Rocca, E. (2020). Rethinking Causality, Complexity and Evidence for the Unique Patient – A CauseHealth Resource for Healthcare Professionals and the Clinical Encounter. Springer Nature.

Rocca, E., Anjum, R.L. (2020). Erice call for change: Utilising patient experiences to enhance the quality and safety of healthcare. Drug Safety. Read online.

Rocca, E., Anjum, R.L. and Mumford, S. (2020) Causal Insights from Failure, in A. La Caze and B. Osimani (eds), Uncertainty in Pharmacology: Epistemology, Methods and Decisions (Boston Series for the History and Philosophy of Science), Springer, pp. 39-57. Pre-print.

Rocca, E. and Anjum, R. L. (2020) Causal Evidence and Dispositions in Medicine and Public Health, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(6), 1813. Read online.

Rocca, E. and Anjum, R.L. (2019). Why causal evidencing of risk fails. An example from oil contamination. Ethics, Policy & Environment, 22: 197-213. Read onlinePre-print.

Rocca, E., Copeland, S., Edwards, I.R. (2019). Pharmacovigilance as scientific discovery: an argument for trans-disciplinarity. Drug Safety, DOI:

Anjum, R.L., Andersen, F., Rocca, E. (2019). Philosophical BIAS is the one bias that science cannot avoid. eLife, 8:e44929 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.44929

Anjum, R.L., Copeland, S., Rocca, E. (2018). Medical scientists and philosophers worldwide appeal to EBM to expand the notion of ‘evidence’. BMJ evidence-based medicine, bmjebm-2018-111092.

Anjum, R.L., Rocca, E. (2018).From Ideal to Real Risk: Philosophy of Causation Meets Risk Analysis. Risk Analysis, DOI:

Anjum, R.L., Copeland, S.M., Kerry, R., Rocca, E. (2018). The Guideline Challenge – Philosophy, Practice, Policy. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, DOI:

Rocca, E. (2018). The judgments that evidence-based medicine adopts.  Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 2018, 1-7. DOI:

Rocca, E., Andersen, F. (2017). How biological background assumptions influence scientific risk evaluation of stacked genetically modified plants: an analysis of research hypotheses and argumentations. Life Sciences, Society and Policy.  DOI 10.1186/s40504-017-0057-7. Read online.

Rocca, E. (2017). Bridging the Boundaries between Scientists and Clinicians – Mechanistic Hypotheses and Patient Stories in Risk Assessment of Drugs. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 23, 114-120.

Anjum, R.L., Copeland, S., Mumford, S. and Rocca, E. (2017). “CauseHealth: integrating philosophical perspectives into person-centered healthcare,” European Journal for Person Centered Healthcare 3, 427-430 (Editorial)

Andreassen, M., Rocca, E., Bøhn, T., Wikmark, O.G., van den Berg, J., Løvik, M., Traavik, T. and Nygaard, U.C. (2015). Humoral and cellular immune responses in mice after airway administration of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab and MON810 cry1Ab-transgenic maize. Food and Agricultural Immunology, 26, 521-537.

Ragancokova, D.*, Rocca, E.*, Oonk, A.M., Schulz, H., Rohde, E., Bednarsch, J., Feenstra, I., Pennings, R.J., Wende, H. and Garratt, A.N. (2014) TSHZ1-Dependent Gene Regulation is Essential for Olfactory Bulb Development and Olfaction. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 124, 1214-1227. (* shared first authorship)

Research dissemination

Uppsala Reports

Causal Insights from Failure. What Pharmacovigilance Can Teach Us About Causality (2021). Uppsala Reports, issue 84, pp 18-20

Philosophy of Science Meets patient Safety. (2020) Uppsala Reports, issue 82, pp 16-19.

Data and theory: the problem of weighing complex evidence in medicine. August 8, 2018 on the CauseHealth blog,

The patient: the beginning of it all. June 20, 2017 on the CauseHealth blog,

N=1: causal reasoning in clinical practice. January 26, 2016 on the CauseHealth blog,

Re-thinking preclinical research. November 6, 2015 on the CauseHealth blog,


“Without deviation from the norm, progress is not possible”. Frank Zappa.